# Glossary

**Addend**

Any number being added.

**Analog Clock**

A dial type clock.

**Array**

The arrangement of set of objects in a defined order of rows and columns, commonly used to show repeated addition, multiplication and division concepts.

**Associative property**

The answer of a problem stays the same even if the grouping of the numbers changes.

**Blends**

Are two or more consonants that when combined make a certain sound. Usually both sounds are heard. *(fl, bl, cr, gr)*

**Commutative property**

The answer of a problem stays the same even when the order of the numbers change.

**Congruent**

Two or more objects that have the same size and shape.

**Decompose a Number**

Break apart a number in an addition or subtraction problem in order to make an addition or subtraction problem easier

**Defining Attribute**

Usually used to describe a shape. An attribute that defines the actual shape. Triangle – closed, 3 sided

**Digraphs**

letter combinations that make one sound *(sh, ch, th, wh, ph)*

**Elapsed Time**

The time between some events.

**Equation**

A mathematical sentence built from combining numbers using one or more equal signs.

**Fiction**

A story that is made up or not real.

**Fluency (math)**

The speed at which a child can solve an equation using strategies that make sense to them.

**Fluency (reading)**

The speed at which a child can read a passage in a minute.

**Fractional Strips**

A visual model of fractions that help children explore fraction relationships.

**Manipulative**

A physical object (toothpicks, legos, blocks) used as a learning tool for children to have a “hands-on” experience practicing math concepts.

**Non-Defining Attribute**

Usually used to describe a shape. An attribute that doesn’t help you to understand the identity of the shape. Triangle – color, size, orientation

**Non-Fiction**

A book that gives real facts.

**Number Line**

A line that represents numbers as points.

**Partial product model**

A partial product model where numbers are split into factors or place values to make calculating easier.

24 x 3 = (20 + 4) x 3 = 20 x 3 + 4 x 3 = 60 + 12 = 72 (the partial product is in blue)

**Partitive model**

A partitive division (also called sharing) problem is one where you know the total number, and you are trying to share it evenly.

12 ÷ 4 to mean 12 divided or shared evenly, as between 4 people.

**Phonemes**

A small unit of sound in the spoken language.

**Quadrilaterals**

A four sided polygon.

**Quotative Division Model**

Quotative division (also called subtraction or measurement) involves taking a number and forming groups.

12 ÷ 4, we determine how many groups of 4 there are in 12.

**Regroup**

Use part of a value from one place to another place to make addition and subtraction easier. (Also know as borrowing and carrying.)

**Sight Words**

The most common words children encounter when learning to read. (See Fry sight words or Dolch sight words)

**Symmetry**

A figure that can be divided in half where each side matches exactly.

**Sum**

The total in addition.

**Ten Frame**

A visual way for a child to build number sense.

**Text**

The printed word in a book.

**Vertex**

The point where two line segments, lines, rays meet to form an angle.

**Vowels**

a,e,i,o,u letters of the alphabet