Any number being added.

Analog Clock

A dial type clock.


The arrangement of set of objects in a defined order of rows and columns, commonly used to show repeated addition, multiplication and division concepts.

Associative property

The answer of a problem stays the same even if the grouping of the numbers changes.


Are two or more consonants that when combined make a certain sound. Usually both sounds are heard. (fl, bl, cr, gr)

Commutative property

The answer of a problem stays the same even when the order of the numbers change.


Two or more objects that have the same size and shape.

Decompose a Number

Break apart a number in an addition or subtraction problem in order to make an addition or subtraction problem easier

Defining Attribute

Usually used to describe a shape. An attribute that defines the actual shape. Triangle – closed, 3 sided


letter combinations that make one sound (sh, ch, th, wh, ph)

Elapsed Time

The time between some events.


A mathematical sentence built from combining numbers using one or more equal signs.


A story that is made up or not real.

Fluency (math)

The speed at which a child can solve an equation using strategies that make sense to them.

Fluency (reading)

The speed at which a child can read a passage in a minute.

Fractional Strips

A visual model of fractions that help children explore fraction relationships.


A physical object (toothpicks, legos, blocks) used as a learning tool for children to have a “hands-on” experience practicing math concepts.

Non-Defining Attribute

Usually used to describe a shape. An attribute that doesn’t help you to understand the identity of the shape. Triangle – color, size, orientation


A book that gives real facts.

Number Line

A line that represents numbers as points.

Partial product model

A partial product model where numbers are split into factors or place values to make calculating easier.

24 x 3 = (20 + 4) x 3 = 20 x 3 + 4 x 3 = 60 + 12 = 72    (the partial product is in blue)

Partitive model

A partitive division (also called sharing) problem is one where you know the total number, and you are trying to share it evenly.

12 ÷ 4 to mean 12 divided or shared evenly, as between 4 people.


A small unit of sound in the spoken language.


A four sided polygon.

Quotative Division Model

Quotative division (also called subtraction or measurement) involves taking a number and forming groups.

12 ÷ 4, we determine how many groups of 4 there are in 12.


Use part of a value from one place to another place to make addition and subtraction easier. (Also know as borrowing and carrying.)

Sight Words

The most common words children encounter when learning to read. (See Fry sight words or Dolch sight words)


A figure that can be divided in half where each side matches exactly.


The total in addition.

Ten Frame

A visual way for a child  to build number sense. 10-frame


The printed word in a book.


The point where two line segments, lines, rays meet to form an angle.


a,e,i,o,u letters of the alphabet